[c++] Type trait improvements

In C++, type traits are used to inquire about the properties of types at compile time. They are an essential component of generic programming where algorithms and data structures are written in a way that is independent of the specific types they operate on. The standard library provides a set of type traits in the <type_traits> header, and with each new C++ version, there are improvements and additions to these type traits to make them more powerful and versatile for template metaprogramming.


In C++11, the standard library introduced the std::enable_if and associated type traits, opening up new possibilities for template metaprogramming. Additionally, C++11 provides fundamental type traits like std::is_same, std::is_pointer, and so on. However, C++11 type traits lack certain features that are addressed in later versions.


C++14 introduced several improvements to the type traits, addressing some limitations and providing better support for constexpr contexts. For example, std::is_literal_type and std::is_trivially_copyable are new additions which provide insights into the literal nature and trivial copyability of a type.


In C++17, the type trait library underwent significant enhancements. New traits were introduced, and existing traits were augmented. It brings us type traits like std::is_aggregate, std::is_invocable, and std::void_t. The std::invoke_result trait provides introspection into the result type of a callable object. C++17 also made std::invoke and std::is_invocable available for constexpr contexts.


C++20 further expanded the type trait library with new traits like std::is_bounded_array and std::is_unbounded_array, allowing us to detect array types in a more fine-grained manner. It also introduced std::is_constant_evaluated to distinguish between constexpr and non-constexpr evaluations.


The evolution of C++ type traits has made template metaprogramming more expressive and powerful. Developers can leverage these type traits to create more efficient and flexible code that can adapt to different types and their properties at compile time. As C++ continues to evolve, we can expect further improvements and additions to the type trait library.

For more information, refer to the C++ type traits documentation.